The Lower Dniester National Park is the richest protected area in the Republic or Moldova with regards to the number of plant and animal species.
The spontaneous vegetation of the Site is represented mostly by plants characteristic for steppe, meadow, and forest, situated mainly along the Dniester River and its tributaries.
The Lower Dniester National Park is located in the forest-steppe with pubescent oak, that is why the main zonal types of vegetation, which occupy the uplands, are forest (predominantly – pubescent oak – garnets) and steppe. On lowland, especially in the Dniester meadow, there are the azonal forest vegetation communities, meadow, and wetlands. The largest floral richness, including rare species, is preserved in the least affected communities of zonal vegetation.
Many species of aquatic vegetation are growing in the water of the river and its tributaries, channels and in the water of small lakes. Some water plants are quite rare and are included in the Red Book of Moldova: Nymphaea alba, Salvinia natans, Trapa natans. Trapa natans forms mass accumulations on the water surface in old river bed “Two Brothers” (Talmaza Meadow).
In the Lower Dniester National Park , there are many flora species, including those from the Red Book of Moldova. Approx. 1000 species of superior plants were identified in the composition of the flora of the natural complexes on the territory of the Lower Dniester. Among them there are a large number of rare plants – 105 species protected nationally and internationally. In the Republic of Moldova 50 species are taken under state protection. The rarest 23 species are included in the Red Book of Moldova, such as Sternbergia colchiciflora, Convolvulus lineatus, Crambe tataria, Ornithogalum boucheanum, Potentilla astracanica, Stipa tirsa, Vitis sylvestris, Bellevalia sarmatica, Chrysopogon gryllus, Cyperus glomeratus, Euonymus nanus, Scirpus triqueter, Scorzonera mollis.
The Red Book of Transdniestria includes 31 species. The IUCN Red List of Europe includes 6 species: Dichostylis micheliana, Trapa natans, Iris hungarica, Potamogeton compressus, Pyrus elaeagnifolia, Veronica euxina.